renewable energy

 renewable energy Dissertation

Renewable and Lasting Energy Opinions 14 (2010) 987–1000

Contents lists offered by ScienceDirect

Renewable and Environmentally friendly Energy Testimonials

journal home page: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

New progress on innovative and potential systems for glycerol transformation into fuel ingredients: A critical assessment

Norhasyimi Rahmat, Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah 2., Abdul Rahman Mohamed Institution of Chemical substance Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia

A R Big t I C L E I N F Um

A W S To R A C Big t

Article history:

Received some November 2009

Accepted 15 November 2009

Glycerol comes forth as a significant worth chemical that can be converted into high value goods. In the possibility of biorefinery industries and great require towards green sources, glycerol has turned out to have tremendous potential to always be transformed, hence supersede typical petroleum derived fuel ingredient. Various types of oxygenated biocomponents and rigorous studies of glycerol change into energy additives happen to be presented with this review paper. Particular target is given to etherification, acetylation and acetalation processes with specific manners in the particular reaction system. ß 2009 Elsevier Limited. All legal rights reserved.

Keywords:

Glycerol

Oxygenate fuel component

Etherification

Acetylation

Acetalation

Catalyst

Contents

1 )

2 .

three or more.

4.

five.

Introduction.................

Gas additive................

2 . 1 .

Oxygenate additive......

Glycerol....................

Glycerol modification into gasoline

4. 1 .

Physical houses......

4. installment payments on your

Reaction mechanism.....

4. several.

Influence of catalyst.....

4. 4.

Influence of reactant.....

4. 5.

Influence of temperature.

5. 6.

Influence of effect time

Summary..................

Acknowledgements...........

Referrals..................

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additives

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Recommendations: [7] Smith C. Rapsolmethylester revolution gathering momentum; 2004, http://

www.straight.com/print/3568 [accessed January eight, 2009].

[15] http://www.chevron.com/products/oronite/products/fuel-additives.html

[accessed January 8, 2009]..

[31] http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fuel_additive [accessed January eight, 2009]..


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